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While working on a range of marine protected area management plans after undergraduate school, he recognized the need to apply regional planning methods and approaches to coastal and ocean management issues. Before this, members of the various disciplines had rarely worked together on the challenges that developed as a result of the Law of the Sea Convention and extended jurisdictions (EEZs) and the establishment of new national coastal zone management programs in the US (1972), Canada, and elsewhere. He desired to bring about this collaboration to address coastal and marine conservation issues, oil and gas exploration and development activities, and increasing pressures for use of the coastal zone for tourism, urbanism, conservation, and industrial development.